October 7, 2019


Capitalism Is Helping Us Use Less Stuff. No, Really.: We're getting more efficient about resource use because of, not in spite of, the world's dominant economic system (Andrew McAfee, 10/06/19, Medium)

How are capitalism and tech progress now getting us more from less? To get answers to these important questions, let's start by looking at a few recent examples of dematerialization.

Fertile farms

America has long been an agricultural juggernaut. In 1982, after more than a decade of steady expansion due in part to rising grain prices, total cropland in the country stood at approximately 380 million acres. Over the next 10 years, however, almost all of this increase was reversed. So much acreage was abandoned by farmers and given back to nature that cropland in 1992 was almost back to where it had been almost 25 years before. This decline had several causes, including falling grain prices, a severe recession, over-indebted farmers, and increased international competition.

A final factor, though, was the ability to get ever-more corn, wheat, soybeans, and other crops from the same acre of land, pound of fertilizer and pesticide, and gallon of water. The material productivity of agriculture in the United States has improved dramatically in recent decades. Between 1982 and 2015 over 45 million acres -- an amount of cropland equal in size to the state of Washington -- was returned to nature. Over the same time potassium, phosphate, and nitrogen (the three main fertilizers) all saw declines in absolute use. Meanwhile, the total tonnage of crops produced in the country increased by more than 35%.

Thin cans

Tin cans are actually made of steel coated with a thin layer of tin to improve corrosion resistance. They've been used since the 19th century to store food. Starting in the 1930s, they began also to be used to hold beer and soft drinks.
In 1959 Coors pioneered beer cans made of aluminum, which is much lighter and more corrosion resistant than steel. Royal Crown Cola followed suit for soda five years later. As Vaclav Smil relates, "A decade later steel cans were on the way out, and none of them have been used for beer since 1994 and for soft drinks since 1996. [. . .] At 85 g the first aluminum cans were surprisingly heavy; by 1972 the weight of a two-piece can dropped to just below 21 g, by 1988 it was less than 16 g, a decade later it average 13.6 g, and by 2011 it was reduced to 12.75 g."

Manufacturers accomplished these reductions by making aluminum cans' walls thinner, and by making the sides and bottom from a single sheet of metal so that only one comparatively heavy seam was needed (to join the top to the rest of the can). Smil points out that if all beverage cans used in 2010 weighed what they did in 1980, they would have required an extra 580,000 tons of aluminum. And aluminum cans kept getting lighter. In 2012 Ball packaging introduced into the European market a 330 ml can that held 7.5% less than the U.S. standard, yet at 9.5 g weighed 25% less.

Gone gizmos

In 2014 Steve Cichon, a "writer, historian, and retired radio newsman in Buffalo, NY," paid $3 for a large stack of front sections of the Buffalo News newspaper from the early months of 1991. On the back page of the Saturday, February 16, issue was an ad from the electronics retailer Radio Shack. Cichon noticed something striking about the ad: "There are 15 electronic gimzo type items on this page. [. . .] 13 of the 15 you now always have in your pocket."

The "gizmo type" items that had vanished into the iPhone Cichon kept in his pocket included a calculator, camcorder, clock radio, mobile telephone, and tape recorder. While the ad didn't include a compass, camera, barometer, altimeter, accelerometer, or GPS device, these, too, have vanished into the iPhone and other smartphones, as have countless atlases and compact discs.

Posted by at October 7, 2019 12:00 AM