September 28, 2016


In 'Hitler,' an Ascent From 'Dunderhead' to Demagogue (MICHIKO KAKUTANI SEPT. 27, 2016, NY Times)

Mr. Ullrich, like other biographers, provides vivid insight into some factors that helped turn a "Munich rabble-rouser" -- regarded by many as a self-obsessed "clown" with a strangely "scattershot, impulsive style" -- into "the lord and master of the German Reich."

• Hitler was often described as an egomaniac who "only loved himself" -- a narcissist with a taste for self-dramatization and what Mr. Ullrich calls a "characteristic fondness for superlatives." His manic speeches and penchant for taking all-or-nothing risks raised questions about his capacity for self-control, even his sanity. [...]

• Hitler was known, among colleagues, for a "bottomless mendacity" that would later be magnified by a slick propaganda machine that used the latest technology (radio, gramophone records, film) to spread his message. A former finance minister wrote that Hitler "was so thoroughly untruthful that he could no longer recognize the difference between lies and truth" and editors of one edition of "Mein Kampf" described it as a "swamp of lies, distortions, innuendoes, half-truths and real facts."

• Hitler was an effective orator and actor, Mr. Ullrich reminds readers, adept at assuming various masks and feeding off the energy of his audiences. Although he concealed his anti-Semitism beneath a "mask of moderation" when trying to win the support of the socially liberal middle classes, he specialized in big, theatrical rallies staged with spectacular elements borrowed from the circus. Here, "Hitler adapted the content of his speeches to suit the tastes of his lower-middle-class, nationalist-conservative, ethnic-chauvinist and anti-Semitic listeners," Mr. Ullrich writes. He peppered his speeches with coarse phrases and put-downs of hecklers. Even as he fomented chaos by playing to crowds' fears and resentments, he offered himself as the visionary leader who could restore law and order.

• Hitler increasingly presented himself in messianic terms, promising "to lead Germany to a new era of national greatness," though he was typically vague about his actual plans. He often harked back to a golden age for the country, Mr. Ullrich says, the better "to paint the present day in hues that were all the darker. Everywhere you looked now, there was only decline and decay."

• Hitler's repertoire of topics, Mr. Ullrich notes, was limited, and reading his speeches in retrospect, "it seems amazing that he attracted larger and larger audiences" with "repeated mantralike phrases" consisting largely of "accusations, vows of revenge and promises for the future." But Hitler virtually wrote the modern playbook on demagoguery, arguing in "Mein Kampf" that propaganda must appeal to the emotions -- not the reasoning powers -- of the crowd. 

Posted by at September 28, 2016 3:05 PM


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