May 27, 2014
WHAT HUME SAVED US FROM:
How the west embraced Chairman Mao's Little Red Book (JOHN GRAY, 23 MAY, 2014, New Statesman)
Reading the essays brought together here, you would hardly realise that Mao was responsible for one of the biggest human catastrophes in recorded history. Launched by him in 1958, the Great Leap Forward cost upwards of 45 million human lives. "When there is not enough to eat, people starve to death," Mao observed laconically. "It is better to let half of the people die so that the other half can eat their fill." He did not specify how those condemned to perish would be made to accept their fate. Ensuing events provided the answer: mass executions and torture, beatings and sexual violence against women were an integral part of a politically induced famine that reduced sections of the population to eating roots, mud and insects, and others to cannibalism. When Mao ordered an end to the horrific experiment in 1961, it was in order to launch another. The Cultural Revolution was nothing like as costly in fatalities, but it left a trail of broken lives and cultural devastation, the memory of which is one of the chief sources of the post-Mao regime's legitimacy.There will be some who object that everyone knows about Mao's failings - why bang on about them now? However, if today we know the scale of Mao's crimes, it is not as a result of decades of academic work on the subject. The first detailed examination of the famine, Hungry Ghosts (1996), was written by the Hong Kong-based journalist Jasper Becker. It was only in 2010 that the historian Frank Dikötter's Mao's Great Famine appeared, a pioneering study based on years of research in recently openedChinese archives. Apart from accounts given in the memoirs of those who survived, the human costs of the Cultural Revolution were best captured by Simon Leys (the pen-name of the Belgian sinologist and literary critic Pierre Ryckmans) in his books Chinese Shadows (1974) and The Burning Forest (1987). The authoritative and revelatory Mao: the Unknown Story (2005) is the work of Jung Chang and her husband, Jon Halliday. Aside from Dikötter's, none of the books that captured the human experience of life under Mao was written by a professional academic.In fastidiously avoiding any reference to the oppressive realities of the Mao years, academics were faithful followers of conventional opinion. The predominant western perception of Mao's regime was of a progressive political project - if at times it got a little out of hand, that was no more than the exuberance that goes naturally with such a liberating enterprise. When in the 1970s I raised with a British communist the millions who were killed in rural purges in the years immediately after Mao came to power, he told me, "Those sorts of numbers are just for western consumption." Further conversation showed that his estimates of the actual numbers were significantly lower than those conceded by the regime. No doubt unwittingly, he had stumbled on a curious truth: the prestige of the Mao regime in the west was at its height when the leadership was believed to be at its most despotic and murderous. For some of its western admirers, the regime's violence had a compelling charm in its own right.Julian Bourg recounts how in France Mao's thoughts became à la mode with the August 1967 release of La Chinoise, Jean-Luc Godard's film about a youthful Parisian Maoist sect. Among French thinkers, Bourg notes, "Mao's language of violence had a certain rhetorical appeal." In fact, it was his combination of rhetorical violence with sub-Hegelian dialectical logic that proved so irresistible to sections of the French intelligentsia. Eulogising Mao's distinction between principal and secondary contradictions, Louis Althusser deployed Maoist categories as part of an extremely abstract and, indeed, largely meaningless defence of "the relative autonomy of theory".Althusser's student Alain Badiou (for many years professor of philosophy at the École Normale Supérieure) continued to defend Maoism long after the scale of its casualties had become undeniable. As recently as 2008, while commending himself for being "now one of Maoism's few noteworthy representatives", Badiou praised Mao's thought as "a new politics of the negation of the negation". From one point of view, this stance is merely contemptible - a professorial pirouette around a vast pile of corpses. But one must bear in mind the fathomless frivolity of some on the French left. Already in 1980, two former Maoist militants had announced their rejection of the creed in the language of fashion: "China was in . . . Now it is out . . . we are no longer Maoists." Against this background, Badiou's persistence is almost heroically absurd.
Nothing soi becomes the English-speaking world as its contempt for intellectuals.
Posted by Orrin Judd at May 27, 2014 7:12 PM