November 21, 2015

SOLA SCRIPTURA:

Is Islam incompatible with modernity? : Many leading Muslim thinkers are returning to Islam's earliest texts to promote reform (Asma Afsaruddin | Nov 18 2015, Mercator Net)

[M]uslims, due to their unique religious history, continue to view their religion as an ally in their attempts to come to terms with the changed circumstances of the modern world.

Muslim religious scholars (ulama) never enjoyed the kind of centralized and institutionalized authority that the medieval European church and its elders did. The ulama - from the eighth century's al-Hasan al-Basri to the 20th century's Ayatullah Khomeini - traditionally distanced themselves from political rulers, intervening on behalf of the populace to ensure social and political justice.

Such an oppositional role to government prevented the emergence of a general popular animosity directed at them, and by extension, toward Islam.

For this reason, today's Muslim thinkers feel no imperative to distance themselves from their religious tradition. On the contrary, they are plumbing it to find resources therein to not only adapt to the modern world, but also to shape it.

Yet 21st-century Muslim religious scholars have a challenging task. How can they exhume and popularize principles and practices that allowed Muslims in the past to coexist with others, in peace and on equal terms, regardless of religious affiliation?

Such a project is made more urgent by the fact that extremists in Muslim-majority societies (ISIS leaders currently foremost among them) vociferously reject this as impossible. Islam, they declare, posits the superiority of Muslims over everyone else. Muslims must convert non-Muslims or politically subjugate them.

As a result, many have accused these extremists of trying to return Muslim-majority societies to the seventh century.

If only that were true!

If these extremists could actually be transported miraculously back to the seventh century, they would learn a thing or two about the religion they claim to be their own.

For starters, they would learn to their chagrin that seventh-century Medina accepted Jews as equal members of the community (umma) under the Constitution of Medina drawn up by the prophet Muhammad in 622 CE. They would also learn that seventh-century Muslims took seriously the Qur'anic injunction (2:256) that there is to be no compulsion in religion and that specific Qur'anic verses (2:62 and 5:69) recognize goodness in righteous Christians and Jews.

Most importantly, fire-breathing extremists would learn that peaceful non-Muslim communities cannot be militarily attacked simply because they are not Muslim. They would be reminded that only after 12 years of nonviolent resistance would the Prophet Muhammad and his companions resort to armed combat or the military jihad. And even then it would only be to defend themselves against aggression.

The Qur'an, after all, unambiguously forbids Muslims from initiating combat. Qur'an 2:190 states, "Do not commit aggression," while Qur'an 60:8 specifically asserts:

God does not forbid you from being kind and equitable to those who have neither made war on you on account of your religion nor driven you from your homes; indeed God loves those who are equitable.

Extremist groups like ISIS are often accused of being scriptural literalists and therefore prone to intolerance and violence. But when it comes to specific Qur'anic verses like 2:256; 60:8 and others, it's clear that they cherry-pick which passages to "strictly" interpret.

Not surprisingly, Muslim reformers are returning to their earliest religious sources and history - the Qur'an and its commentaries, reliable sayings of Muhammad, early historical chronicles - for valuable guidance during these troubled times.

And much of what we regard as "modern, progressive values" - among them religious tolerance, the empowerment of women, and accountable, consultative modes of governance - can actually be found in this strand of Muslims' collective history.

Like 16th-century Christian reformers, Muslim reformers are returning to their foundational texts and mining them for certain moral guidelines and ethical prescriptions. For one reason or another - political upheaval, war, ideological movements - many had been cast aside. But today they retain particular relevance.

As a result, the reformers are distinguishing between "normative Islam" and "historical Islam," as the famous Islam scholar Fazlur Rahman has phrased it.

The Reformation rolls on....


Posted by at November 21, 2015 7:37 AM

  

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